Daftar Publikasi dengan Tag: Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies

Survey of Gravitationally-lensed Objects in HSC Imaging (SuGOHI). VIII. New galaxy-scale lenses from the HSC SSP

We conduct a search for galaxy-scale strong gravitational lens systems in Data Release 4 of the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC SSP), consisting of data taken up to the S21A semester. We select 103191 luminous red galaxies from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) sample that have deep multiband imaging from the HSC SSP and use the YattaLens algorithm to automatically identify lens candidates with blue arc-like features. The candidates are visually inspected and graded based on their likelihood of being a lens. We find 8 definite lenses, 28 probable lenses, and 138 possible lenses. The new lens candidates generally have lens redshifts in the range $0.3 \lesssim z_\mathrm{L} \lesssim 0.9$, a key intermediate redshift range to study the evolution of galaxy structure. Follow-up spectroscopy will confirm these new lenses and measure source redshifts to enable detailed lens modeling.

Kenneth C. Wong , James H. H. Chan , Dani C.-Y. Chao , Anton T. Jaelani , Issha Kayo , Chien-Hsiu Lee , Anupreeta More , Masamune Oguri

Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies
HOLISMOKES. VIII. High-redshift Strong Lens Candidates from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program

We carry out a dedicated search for strong-lens systems with high-redshift lens galaxies with the goal of extending strong lensing-assisted galaxy evolutionary studies to earlier cosmic time. Two strong-lens classifiers are constructed from a deep residual network and trained with datasets of different lens redshift and brightness distributions. We classify a sample of 5,356,628 pre-selected objects from the Wide layer fields in the second public data release of the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP) by applying the two classifiers to their HSC $gri$-filter cutouts. Cutting off at thresholds that correspond to a false-positive rate of $10^{-3}$ on our test set, the two classifiers identify 5,468 and 6,119 strong-lens candidates. Visually inspecting the cutouts of those candidates results in 735 grade-A/B strong-lens candidates in total, of which 277 candidates are discovered for the first time. This is the single largest set of galaxy-scale strong-lens candidates discovered with HSC data to date, and nearly half of it (331/735) contains lens galaxies with photometric redshifts above 0.6. Our discoveries will serve as a valuable target list for ongoing and scheduled spectroscopic surveys such as the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph project, and the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer.

Yiping Shu , Raoul Cañameras , Stefan Schuldt , Sherry H. Suyu , Stefan Taubenberger , Kaiki Taro Inoue , Anton T. Jaelani

Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies
HOLISMOKES. VI. New galaxy-scale strong lens candidates from the HSC-SSP imaging survey

We have carried out a systematic search for galaxy-scale strong lenses in multiband imaging from the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey. Our automated pipeline, based on realistic strong-lens simulations, deep neural network classification, and visual inspection, is aimed at efficiently selecting systems with wide image separations (Einstein radii $\sim 1.0--3.0$"), intermediate redshift lenses (z $\sim 0.4-0.7$), and bright arcs for galaxy evolution and cosmology. We classified gri images of all 62.5 million galaxies in HSC Wide with i-band Kron radius $\gt 0.8$" to avoid strict pre-selections and to prepare for the upcoming era of deep, wide-scale imaging surveys with Euclid and Rubin Observatory. We obtained 206 newly-discovered candidates classified as definite or probable lenses with either spatially-resolved multiple images or extended, distorted arcs. In addition, we found 88 high-quality candidates that were assigned lower confidence in previous HSC searches, and we recovered 173 known systems in the literature. These results demonstrate that, aided by limited human input, deep learning pipelines with false positive rates as low as $\sim 0.01$% can be very powerful tools for identifying the rare strong lenses from large catalogs, and can also largely extend the samples found by traditional algorithms. We provide a ranked list of candidates for future spectroscopic confirmation.

R. Canameras , S. Schuldt , Y. Shu , S. H. Suyu , S. Taubenberger , T. Meinhardt , L. Leal-Taixé , D. C.-Y. Chao , K. T. Inoue , Anton T. Jaelani , A. More

Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies Astrophysics - Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics
Strongly lensed candidates from the HSC transient survey

We present a lensed quasar search based on the variability of lens systems in the HSC transient survey. Starting from 101,353 variable objects with i-band photometry in the HSC transient survey, we used a variability-based lens search method measuring the spatial extent in difference images to select potential lensed quasar candidates. We adopted conservative constraints in this variability selection and obtained 83,657 variable objects as possible lens candidates. We then ran CHITAH, a lens search algorithm based on the image configuration, on those 83,657 variable objects, and 2,130 variable objects were identified as potential lensed objects. We visually inspected the 2,130 variable objects, and seven of them are our final lensed quasar candidates. Additionally, we found one lensed galaxy candidate as a serendipitous discovery. Among the eight final lensed candidates, one is the only known quadruply lensed quasar in the survey field, HSCJ095921+020638. None of the other seven lensed candidates have been previously classified as a lens nor a lensed candidate. Three of the five final candidates with available HST images, including HSCJ095921+020638, show clues of a lensed feature in the HST images. A tightening of variability selection criteria might result in the loss of possible lensed quasar candidates, especially the lensed quasars with faint brightness or narrow separation, without efficiently eliminating the non-lensed objects; CHITAH is therefore important as an advanced examination to improve the lens search efficiency through the object configuration. The recovery of HSCJ095921+020638 proves the effectiveness of the variability-based lens search method, and this lens search method can be used in other cadenced imaging surveys, such as the upcoming Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time.

Dani C.-Y. Chao , James H.-H. Chan , Sherry H. Suyu , Naoki Yasuda , Tomoki Morokuma , Anton T. Jaelani , Tohru Nagao , C. E. Rusu

Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies Astrophysics - Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics
Properties of the Environment of Galaxies in Clusters of Galaxies CL 0024$+$1654 and RX J0152.7$-$1357

We report the results of combined analyses of X-ray and optical data of two galaxy clusters, CL 0024$+$1654 and RX J0152.7$-$1357 at redshift $z = 0.395$ and $z = 0.830$, respectively, which offer a holistic physical description of the two clusters. Our X-ray analysis yields temperature and density profile of the gas in the intra-cluster medium (ICM). Using optical photometric and spectroscopic data, complemented with mass distribution from gravitational lensing study, we investigate any possible correlation between the physical properties of the galaxy members, i.e., their color, morphology, and star formation rate (SFR) with their environments. We quantify the properties of the environment of each galaxy by galaxy number density, ICM temperature, and mass density. Although our result shows that the two clusters exhibit a weaker correlation compared to relaxed clusters, it still confirms the significant effect of the ICM on the SFRs in the galaxies. Various physical mechanisms are suggested to explain the relation between the properties of galaxies and their environment.

Premana W. Premadi , Dading H. Nugroho , Anton T. Jaelani

Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies
SILVERRUSH X: Machine Learning-Aided Selection of $9318$ LAEs at $z=2.2$, $3.3$, $4.9$, $5.7$, $6.6$, and $7.0$ from the HSC SSP and CHORUS Survey Data

We present a new catalog of $9318$ Ly$\alpha$ emitter (LAE) candidates at $z = 2.2$, $3.3$, $4.9$, $5.7$, $6.6$, and $7.0$ that are photometrically selected by the SILVERRUSH program with a machine learning technique from large area (up to $25.0$ deg$^2$) imaging data with six narrowband filters taken by the Subaru Strategic Program with Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC SSP) and a Subaru intensive program, Cosmic HydrOgen Reionization Unveiled with Subaru (CHORUS). We construct a convolutional neural network that distinguishes between real LAEs and contaminants with a completeness of $94$% and a contamination rate of $1$%, enabling us to efficiently remove contaminants from the photometrically selected LAE candidates. We confirm that our LAE catalogs include $177$ LAEs that have been spectroscopically identified in our SILVERRUSH programs and previous studies, ensuring the validity of our machine learning selection. In addition, we find that the object-matching rates between our LAE catalogs and our previous results are $\simeq 80$-$100$% at bright NB magnitudes of $\lesssim 24$ mag. We also confirm that the surface number densities of our LAE candidates are consistent with previous results. Our LAE catalogs will be made public on our project webpage.

Yoshiaki Ono , Ryohei Itoh , Takatoshi Shibuya , Masami Ouchi , Yuichi Harikane , Satoshi Yamanaka , Akio K. Inoue , Toshiyuki Amagasa , Daichi Miura , Maiki Okura , Kazuhiro Shimasaku , Ikuru Iwata , Yoshiaki Taniguchi , Seiji Fujimoto , Masanori Iye , Anton T. Jaelani , Nobunari Kashikawa , Shotaro Kikuchihara , Satoshi Kikuta , Masakazu A. R. Kobayashi , Haruka Kusakabe , Chien-Hsiu Lee , Yongming Liang , Yoshiki Matsuoka , Rieko Momose , Tohru Nagao , Kimihiko Nakajima , Ken-ichi Tadaki

Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies
Lensed quasar search via time variability with the HSC transient survey

Gravitationally lensed quasars are useful for studying astrophysics and cosmology, and enlarging the sample size of lensed quasars is important for multiple studies. In this work, we develop a lens search algorithm for four-image (quad) lensed quasars based on their time variability. In the development of the lens search algorithm, we constructed a pipeline simulating multi-epoch images of lensed quasars in cadenced surveys, accounting for quasar variabilities, quasar hosts, lens galaxies, and the PSF variation. Applying the simulation pipeline to the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) transient survey, we generated HSC-like difference images of the mock lensed quasars from Oguri & Marshall's lens catalog. We further developed a lens search algorithm that picks out variable objects as lensed quasar candidates based on their spatial extent in the difference images. We tested our lens search algorithm with the mock lensed quasars and variable objects from the HSC transient survey. Using difference images from multiple epochs, our lens search algorithm achieves a high true-positive rate (TPR) of 90.1% and a low false-positive rate (FPR) of 2.3% for the bright quads with wide separation. With a preselection of the number of blobs in the difference image, we obtain a TPR of 97.6% and a FPR of 2.6% for the bright quads with wide separation. Even when difference images are only available in one single epoch, our lens search algorithm can still detect the bright quads with wide separation at high TPR of 97.6% and low FPR of 2.4% in the optimal seeing scenario, and at TPR of $\sim94%$ and FPR of $\sim5%$ in typical scenarios. Therefore, our lens search algorithm is promising and is applicable to ongoing and upcoming cadenced surveys, particularly the HSC transient survey and the Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time, for finding new lensed quasar systems. [abridged]

Dani C.-Y. Chao , James H.-H. Chan , Sherry H. Suyu , Naoki Yasuda , Anupreeta More , Masamune Oguri , Tomoki Morokuma , Anton T. Jaelani

Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies Astrophysics - Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics Astrophysics - Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics
Survey of Gravitationally lensed Objects in HSC Imaging (SuGOHI) - VII. Discovery and Confirmation of Three Strongly Lensed Quasars

We present spectroscopic confirmation of three new two-image gravitationally lensed quasars, compiled from existing strong lens and X-ray catalogs. Images of HSC J091843.27-022007.5 show a red galaxy with two blue point sources at either side, separated by 2.26 arcsec. This system has a source and a lens redshifts $z\_s = 0.804$ and $z\_l = 0.459$, respectively, as obtained by our follow-up spectroscopic data. CXCO J100201.50+020330.0 shows two point sources separated by 0.85 arcsec on either side of an early-type galaxy. The follow-up spectroscopic data confirm the fainter quasar has the same redshift with the brighter quasar from the SDSS fiber spectrum at $z\_s = 2.016$. The deflecting foreground galaxy is a typical early-type galaxy at a redshift of $z\_l = 0.439$. SDSS J135944.21+012809.8 has two point sources with quasar spectra at the same redshift $z\_s = 1.096$, separated by 1.05 arcsec, and fits to the HSC images confirm the presence of a galaxy between these. These discoveries demonstrate the power of the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP)'s deep imaging and wide sky coverage. Combined with existing X-ray source catalogues and follow-up spectroscopy, the HSC-SSP provides us unique opportunities to find multiple-image quasars lensed by a foreground galaxy.

Anton T. Jaelani , Cristian E. Rusu , Issha Kayo , Anupreeta More , Alessandro Sonnenfeld , John D. Silverman , Malte Schramm , Timo Anguita , Naohisa Inada , Daichi Kondo , Paul L. Schechter , Khee-Gan Lee , Masamune Oguri , James H. H. Chan , Kenneth C. Wong , Kaiki T. Inoue

Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies
Survey of Gravitationally-lensed Objects in HSC Imaging (SuGOHI). V. Group-to-cluster scale lens search from the HSC-SSP Survey

We report the largest sample of candidate strong gravitational lenses belonging to the Survey of Gravitationally-lensed Objects in HSC Imaging for group-to-cluster scale (SuGOHI-c) systems. These candidates are compiled from the S18A data release of the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP) Survey. We visually inspect $\sim39,500$ galaxy clusters, selected from several catalogs, overlapping with the Wide, Deep, and UltraDeep fields, spanning the cluster redshift range $0.05 < z_{cl} < 1.38$. We discover 641 candidate lens systems, of which 537 are new. From the full sample, 47 are almost certainly bonafide lenses, 181 of them are highly probable lenses and 413 are possible lens systems. Additionally, we present 131 lens candidates at galaxy-scale serendipitously discovered during the inspection. We obtained spectroscopic follow-up of 10 candidates using the X-shooter. With this follow-up, we confirm 8 systems as strong gravitational lenses. Out of the remaining two, the lensed sources of one of them was too faint to detect any emission, and the source in the second system has redshift close to the lens but other additional arcs in this system are yet to be tested spectroscopically. Since the HSC-SSP is an ongoing survey, we expect to find $\sim600$ definite or probable lenses using this procedure and more if combined with other lens finding methods.

Anton T. Jaelani , Anupreeta More , Masamune Oguri , Alessandro Sonnenfeld , Sherry H. Suyu , Cristian E. Rusu , Kenneth C. Wong , James H. H. Chan , Issha Kayo , Chien-Hsiu Lee , Dani C.-Y. Chao , Jean Coupon , Kaiki T. Inoue , Toshifumi Futamase

Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies
Survey of Gravitationally-lensed Objects in HSC Imaging (SuGOHI). IV. Lensed quasar search in the HSC survey

Strong gravitationally lensed quasars provide powerful means to study galaxy evolution and cosmology. We use Chitah to hunt for new lens systems in the Hyper Suprime$-$Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC SSP) S16A. We present 46 lens candidates, of which 3 are previously known. Including 2 additional lenses found by YattaLens, we obtain X-shooter spectra of 6 promising candidates for lens confirmation and redshift measurements. We report new spectroscopic redshift measurements for both the lens and source galaxies in 4 lens systems. We apply the lens modeling software Glee to model our 6 X-shooter lenses uniformly. Through our analysis of the HSC images, we find that HSCJ022622$-$042522, HSCJ115252$+$004733, and HSCJ141136$-$010216 have point-like lensed images, and that the lens light distribution is well aligned with mass distribution within 6 deg. Thanks to the X-shooter spectra, we estimate fluxes on the Baldwin- Phillips-Terlevich (BPT) diagram, and find that HSCJ022622$-$042522 has a probable quasar source, based on the upper limit of the Nii flux intensity. We also measure the FWHM of Ly$\alpha$ emission of HSCJ141136$-$010216 to be $\sim$254 km/s, showing that it is a probable Lyman-$\alpha$ emitter.

James H. H. Chan , Sherry H. Suyu , Alessandro Sonnenfeld , Anton T. Jaelani , Anupreeta More , Atsunori Yonehara , Yuriko Kubota , Jean Coupon , Chien-Hsiu Lee , Masamune Oguri , Cristian E. Rusu , Kenneth C. Wong

Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies
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